Perennials are plants that return year after year. Some are evergreen and keep their foliage in winter; Others will go dormant and die in the soil and send out new shoots in the spring. They typically bloom for just one season a year, spring, summer, or fall; Although there are re-blooming varieties that bloom every time. Perennials have fewer flowers than annuals because they spend their energy growing strong roots instead of flowers and seeds. Continue reading below for more information on how to grow and care for perennials.
There are four main types:
- Short term rates last for 2-3 years.
- Long-lived varieties live 5 years or more.
- Grasses have soft green stems and die each winter in colder regions.
- Timber species may lose their leaves in autumn or winter, but the root systems and stems remain alive.
There are perennials to suit the needs of any garden:
From simple to elegant, large or feathered, color options range from chartreuse green to deep purple.
Choose perennial plants with flowers that vary in color from white to almost black.
Varieties from a few centimeters to several meters in height and width.
Suitable selections for full sun to full shade locations.
While most prefer well-draining soils, there are others that are suitable for wet locations.
Most garden perennials only have a limited flowering period, but with care throughout the growing season, they add presence and leafy form to the garden landscape. Popular herbaceous perennials include snowdrops, chrysanthemums, columbines, dahlias, laxpurs, hollyhocks, phlox, roses, poppies and primroses. In agriculture, several economically important crops are perennial and produce crops for many years. This includes all tree crops (apples, citrus fruits, nuts, coffee, chocolate, palm oil, etc.), blueberries, blueberries, asparagus, grapes, alfalfa, rhubarb, chives, mint and others.
Site selection is the first step in planning a successful perennial garden. Take stock of your environmental conditions to determine an ideal location. Ease of access, proximity to external areas and visibility from inside the house are factors to be considered. An evergreen garden can be the central feature of the landscape. Locate the perennial garden so that it is accessible from at least two sides. When space is available, beds that are 6 feet wide or larger look nicer. Many perennial plants require a lot of sunlight: 8 hours or more during the longest summer days. Shade-loving perennials, such as ferns, bleeding heart, and hostas, do best in locations with less sunlight, such as the north side of a house or in filtered shade.
Good air circulation is important to prevent illness. Still, warm, humid air creates ideal conditions for powdery mildew to develop. See fact sheet 2.902, Powdery Mildew, for more information. To minimize disease problems, give perennials adequate growing space when planting. Design your garden with the mature size of the plants in mind.
Perennial garden design
Determine the size of the garden considering the space available and the time you have for maintenance. Perennial gardens should be functional, easy to maintain, and provide a progression of flowers and textures throughout the season. Steps can allow easy access through larger garden spaces and prevent soil compaction.
To start your design, measure the proposed site. On graph paper, draw the drawing to scale, using a scale of 1 inch = 4 feet. Then proceed with the following steps: Locate existing structures: walls, fences, paths, etc. Locate existing plants such as trees and shrubs. Consider your mature size. Draw the desired outline of the bed. It may be helpful to place a garden hose around the area to visualize the shape. Measure the lines from a known reference point, such as the side of the house or yard, and place them on the graph paper.
Once you’ve decided on the garden outline, add plants following
These design principles:
- Place plants of the same variety in groups of three, five, or seven to increase the impact of color or texture.
- Repeat groups of the same plant two or three times in space to create continuity and harmony.
- Use taller plants at the back of the bed or in the middle of a bed viewed from multiple sides.
- In urban communities, consider lines of sight and possible safety obstructions for streets and other front yards.
- Place the shorter plants in front of the bed.
- Move selected taller plants closer together to increase height variation.
- Combine plants with various shapes, textures and colors.
- Consider foliage size, shape, and texture, as well as flowering time and color.
- Place the plants on the plane with diagonal or triangular spaces.
- Plan for the mature size of the plants and leave plenty of room for growth.
- Consider adding voids within the plan.
- Add annuals and light bulbs for accent color.
Site and soil preparation
A beautiful, healthy perennial garden requires soil that provides good drainage. Measure the fertility and tillage of the soil in your proposed garden by doing a soil test. See package insert 0.501, Soil, Water and Plant Testing, for more information.
Prepare the site by removing any existing grass or plant material in the designated area. Install borders to prevent grass encroachment. Incorporate organic matter (compost, sphagnum peat or well-aged manure) to a depth of 30 cm. A general recommendation is 3 cubic feet of organic matter per 1,000 square feet. That’s the equivalent of a 1-inch layer per 1,000 square feet. See Fact Sheet 7.235, Choosing a Soil Amendment,
The list of potential perennials and design combinations is endless. See Fact Sheet 7.405, Perennial Herbs, for a list of readily available species. Many new improved varieties are introduced annually, adapted to our climate.
Choose plants based on light and water requirements, flowering period, shape, leaf texture, flower color, and height and width requirements. Flowering times may vary based on climate, soil conditions and elevation. At higher elevations, flowering times are later.
Fertilization, headless, division, invasion and plagues and Disease resistance.
Culture and maintenance
you. See Fact Sheet 7406, Flowers for Mountain Communities, for more information on gardening at height.
Tall perennials such as delphinium, foxglove, and hollyhock may require stakes in windy locations. In windy areas or where staking is undesirable, dwarf varieties can be chosen.
The most important consideration when selecting plants for a perennial garden is to group them according to their environmental and cultural requirements. Place plants with similar water needs together in the garden and plan to water accordingly. For example, place drought-tolerant plants together at the top of a slope and moisture-loving plants in a swamp or low-lying spot where runoff collects. This is called hydrozonation.
When selecting plants, plan for maintenance considerations such as testing
How to design a perennial flower garden
There are some specific things to consider when choosing what and where to plant:
- When will this plant bloom and for how long?
- How much growth (height, spread, bloom size) do you produce during peak season?
- Do your flowers or foliage change color over time, and if so, when and what colors can you expect?
- What different colors are available in cultivars of this plant?
- Does this plant have a desirable fragrance?
- Do you have specific light or soil needs that are different from nearby plants?
- Is it vulnerable to pests, and if so, will it attract pests that can damage adjacent plants?
- Does this plant have flowers that are vulnerable to damage from wind, rain, or heat?
Keep a notebook with a list of the plants you are considering and do your research. Read the labels at the nursery and ask staff or other gardeners for advice and advice.
Get the overview
Look at your garden from a distance and see how the plantings work together. When gardening, we are often “up close and personal” with plants, but design requires taking a step back to gain a fuller perspective of your space. This is especially important if you have large trees and shrubs in your landscape – consider the full impact of your design. Take a step back to see the big picture and see how your crops balance and flow with each other.
Plant bulbs for early spring color
There’s nothing better than spring bulbs for low-effort springtime color. But, they only bloom for a few weeks. When planting your spring bulbs (crocuses, daffodils, hyacinths, and tulips) alongside your hostas and daylilies, the foliage on the bulbs will die off once the foliage begins to emerge from these late-season plants. This makes great use of space and fills in the gaps between flowering seasons.
Sort plants by height
Most of the time, you’ll want to place the tallest plants at the back of the bed and the shortest ones at the front. Exceptions might be plants with very delicate flower clusters or tall, slender stems with flowers at the top, which may go forward even if their stems are taller than the plants in front (such as alliums, salvia, coral bells / heucheras, verónica, aguileñas, bells or forget-me-nots).
Create visual patterns with colors
Planting to create an attention-grabbing color pattern is a well-known trick for landscapers. See how the purple foliage of these heucheras creates a dynamic pattern that guides the eye through the garden and connects them with the purple hues of Japanese maples. The purple foliage of these heucheras and Japanese maples creates a dynamic pattern that catches the eye.
Strive for an interesting shape and texture
Plant strategically to create a vivid mix of shapes and textures. Even a simple shaded garden can balance the robust, rounded or spiky leaves of hostas with the delicate textures of heuchera leaves and flowers, airy astilbes and spiky ferns. Also consider how a plant’s texture can change as the season progresses. The delicate, airy texture of the heuchera (coral bells) flowers is a perfect contrast to the heavier shapes and textures of the hostas in this shady garden.
Try color blocking
Some gardeners like to have a wide variety of plants in their mixed perennial beds. But there’s something to be said for the dramatic impact of a large area blooming with vibrant colors, turning your garden into a seasonal spectacle. This is especially effective with long-blooming perennials such as columbines, echinacea, hydrangeas, dianthus, chrysanthemums, etc.
Plant other flowering plants nearby that will add color when these stunning ones are ready; try perennial mums or snapdragons in front of your echinacea.
drawing with foliage
Perennial flowers don’t always have long flowering times, so learning which plants have colorful or interesting foliage can help you design a garden that stays rich and interesting through the seasons.
Heucheras come in a rainbow of colors with differently shaped leaves and do well in sun or shade. Hostas and daphne come in varied varieties that add visual depth and interest. Silver tones can come from artemisia or brunnera. The beautifully shaped leaves of hydrangeas and ammonia provide brilliant fall color.
Create colorful shade beds
There are many perennials that thrive happily in partial shade, so your shade beds don’t just have to be hostas and astilbes. Evergreen geraniums intertwine re plants in search of dappled sun and other colorful lovers of partial shade include foxgloves, alliums, lilies, heucheras and primroses. See how the purple hues and lacy texture of Japanese Spotted Fern complement ‘Rozanne’ geraniums and ‘Millennium’ alliums here.